Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Alias Tutorial

Learning Autodesk AliasStudio 2008 Level 1 A hands-on introduction to the key tools & techniques of Autodesk AliasStudio 73415-050000-5001A Copyright and trademarks AliasStudio 2008 documentation by: Pat Anderson, Marie-France Roy, Kerry Kingston and Damien Fleury  © Copyright 2002-2007 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form, by any method, for any purpose. AUTODESK, INC. MAKES NO WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE REGARDING THESE MATERIALS, AND MAKES SUCH MATERIALS AVAILABLE SOLELY ON AN â€Å"AS-IS† BASIS. IN NO EVENT SHALL AUTODESK, INC. , BE LIABLE TO ANYONE FOR SPECIAL, COLLATERAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES IN CONNECTION WITH OR ARISING OUT OF ACQUISITION OR USE OF THESE MATERIALS. THE SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE LIABILITY TO AUTODESK, INC. REGARDLESS OF THE FORM OF ACTION, SHALL NOT EXCEED THE PURCHASE PRICE, IF ANY, OF THE MATERIALS DESCRIBED HEREIN. Autodesk, Inc. , reserves the right to revise and improve its products as it sees fit. This publication describes the state of this product at the time of its publication, and may not reflect the product at all times in the future. Autodesk Trademarks The following are registered trademarks or trademarks of Autodesk, Inc. , in the USA and other countries: 3DEC (design/ logo), 3December, 3December. om, 3ds Max, ActiveShapes, Actrix, ADI, Alias, Alias (swirl design/logo), AliasStudio, Alias|Wavefront (design/logo), ATC, AUGI, AutoCAD, AutoCAD Learning Assistance, AutoCAD LT, AutoCAD Simulator, AutoCAD SQL Extension, AutoCAD SQL Interface, Autodesk, Autodesk Envision, Autodesk Insight, Autodesk Intent, Autodesk Inventor, Autodesk Map, Autodesk MapGuide, Autodesk Streamline, AutoLISP, AutoSnap, AutoSketch, AutoTrack, Backdraft, Built with ObjectARX (logo), Burn, Buzzsaw, CAiCE, Can You Imagine, Character Studio, Cinestream, Civi l 3D, Cleaner, Cleaner Central, ClearScale, Colour Warper, Combustion, Communication Specification, Constructware, Content Explorer, Create>what's;Next; (design/logo), Dancing Baby (image), DesignCenter, Design Doctor, Designer's Toolkit, DesignKids, DesignProf, DesignServer, DesignStudio, Design|Studio (design/logo), Design Your World, Design Your World (design/logo), DWF, DWG, DWG (logo), DWG TrueConvert, DWG TrueView, DXF, EditDV, Education by Design, Extending the Design Team, FBX, Filmbox, FMDesktop, GDX Driver, Gmax, Heads-up Design, Heidi, HOOPS, HumanIK, idrop, iMOUT, Incinerator, IntroDV, Kaydara, Kaydara (design/logo), LocationLogic, Lustre, Maya, Mechanical Desktop, MotionBuilder, ObjectARX, ObjectDBX, Open Reality, PolarSnap, PortfolioWall, Powered with Autodesk Technology, Productstream, ProjectPoint, Reactor, RealDWG, Real-time Roto, Render Queue, Revit, Showcase, SketchBook, StudioTools, Topobase, Toxik, Visual, Visual Bridge, Visual Construction, Visual Drainage, Visual Hydro, Visual Landscape, Visual Roads, Visual Survey, Visual Syllabus, Visual Toolbox, Visual Tugboat, Visual LISP, Voice Reality, Volo, and Wiretap. The following a re registered trademarks or trademarks of Autodesk Canada Co. n the USA and/or Canada and other countries: Backburner, Discreet, Fire, Flame, Flint, Frost, Inferno, Multi-Master Editing, River, Smoke, Sparks, Stone, Wire. All other brand names, product names or trademarks belong to their respective holders. Third-Party Copyright Notices This product includes software developed by the Apache Software Foundation. Macromedia Shockwaveâ„ ¢ Player and Macromedia Flashâ„ ¢ Player software by Macromedia, Inc. , Copyright  © 1995-2000 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved. Portions relating to JPEG Copyright  © 1991-1998 Thomas G. Lane. All rights reserved. This software is based in part on the work of the Independent JPEG Group. Portions relating to TIFF Copyright  © 1997-1998 Sam Leffler. Copyright  © 1991-1997 Silicon Graphics, Inc. All rights reserved. GOVERNMENT USE Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U. S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in FAR 12. 212 (Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights) and DFAR 227. 7202 (Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software), as applicable. Published By: Autodesk, Inc. 111 Mclnnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903, USA Documentation build date: April 3, 2007 iii GETTING HELP ON ALIASSTUDIO Welcome Autodesk provides you with a number of resources to aid you in becoming a proficient AliasStudio user. Finding help on AliasStudio features If: Try this You want information about installing AliasStudio Follow the on-screen instructions on the installation CD. For more detailed instructions, see the install. pdf file on the top level of the CD. You are new to AliasStudio ? Read Getting Started, the booklet included in the kit. ? Browse through the information on the main documentation page (index. html) ? Read the About†¦ section of the online documentation. If you prefer, you can print off the book full of this information, which is called AliasStudio Fundamentals. ? Work through these tutorials in Learning AliasStudio. These are basic lessons that will teach you about working in 3D in AliasStudio. They are also the prerequisite for more advanced AliasStudio courses. Use the How To†¦ section of the online documentation to learn how to perform specific operations within AliasStudio, like drawing curves, making four-sided surfaces, and using masks while painting. ? Visit www. autodesk. com/estore to find out about learning tools such as Learning Alias AliasStudio | Beginner’s Guide aimed at the novice user. You are upgrading from a previous version of StudioTools ? See the What’s New in AliasStudio document, available by selecting Help > What’s New in AliasStudio, or on the documentation CD as a PDF file. ? Look at the What’s New tab in the default sh elf provided with the application. iv You are looking for detailed nformation about a tool or feature ? Look in the â€Å"Tools and Menus† section of the online help ? Choose Help > What’s this and then click on the tool or menu item ? Use the right mouse button on the background of any option window to see help for that tool or operation. You want to learn new techniques for using AliasStudio ? See Learning AliasStudio 2008 ? See Technical Surfacing ? Visit www. autodesk. com/estore to find learning tools aimed at intermediate and advanced users. You want a PDF version of one of the manuals ? All of the manuals are provided in PDF format in the PDF directory on the documentation CD. You want to know what the eyboard shortcuts are in AliasStudio ? Choose Help > Keyboard shortcuts from within AliasStudio, or click Keyboard Shortcuts on the main online help page. You want a Quick Reference card ? Print the Quick Reference card file provided in the PDF directory on the do cumentation CD. v Finding AliasStudio training resources If†¦ Try this†¦ You want to obtain in-depth training ? See the learning materials and training courses available from www. autodesk. com/training You want to get tips and techniques from the experts at AliasStudio MasterClasses ? For events near you, see www. autodesk. com/training You want to create plug-ins for AliasStudio Use the AliasStudio Application Programmers’ Interface Manual to learn the object-oriented programming required to build plug-ins. You want information about becoming an Alias-certified instructor ? See the information at www. autodesk. com/training or contact us at [email  protected] com. vi Finding support for AliasStudio If†¦ Try this You are a Platinum member and want to access the Knowledgebase or Ask Autodesk ? Go to the AliasStudio support site at www. autodesk. com/ support You want to interat with other AliasStudio users ? Go to the online User-to-User Discussion forum on t he AliasStudio support site at www. autodesk. com/support You want answers to common roubleshooting questions ? See the FAQs (frequently asked questions) in the technical support section of the AliasStudio support website at www. autodesk. com/support. You want to license your software ? If you are a Platinum member and need a license, check the executable license file on the top of your installation CD. If your license isn’t there, go to www. autodesk. com/ spar and follow the instructions in the install. pdf file at the top of the AliasStudio CD. ? If you are a new customer, go to www. autodesk. com/opa to obtain a new license. You want customer or technical support ? Go to the webpage www. autodesk. com/support vii Working with AliasStudio If you create concept designs ? Read about our new concept design workflow ? Work through the modeling and rendering tutorials in Learning Studio If you build 3D models based on sketches ? Work through the modeling tutorials in Learning AliasStudio If you build 3D models for manufacture ? Read About Curves and About Modeling ? Work through the modeling tutorials in Learning Studio ? Check the community site for tips and tricks If you modify 3D models for manufacture ? Read AliasStudio Fundamentals ? Work through the Technical Surfacing tutorials. If you create rendered images ? Read About Rendering ? Work through the rendering tutorials in Learning Studio Check the community site for tips and tricks and downloadable shaders and backgrounds If you create animations ? Do the work in the â€Å"If you create rendered images† section ? Read About Animating ? Work through the animation tutorials in Learning Studio ? Check the community site for tips and tricks. viii ix CONTENTS Lear ning AliasStudio provides you with tutorials to learn the basics of modeling, rendering, and animating. All features are not available in all products or on all platforms; you may find your software does not support some of the capabilities described in this book to sketch, render, or animate. Getting help on AliasStudio iii Finding help on AliasStudio features iii Finding AliasStudio training resources v Finding support for AliasStudio vi Working with AliasStudio vii Contents ix Learning AliasStudio Tutorials 1 How to use this book 1 Interface Basics 5 Using Tools 11 Changing Your View of the Model 25 Understanding the object lister 33 Introduction to 3D 37 Part 1: Beginning a Model 38 Part 1: Creating 3D objects 41 Saving your work 45 Part 2: Building the lampstand 47 Part 3: Organizing the model 54 Part 4: Building the lampshade 58 Part 5: Assembling the desk lamp 65 Part 6: Posing the Lamp Model 68 Conclusion 70 Quiz 71 On your own 72 x Contents Quiz Answers 74 Modeling a Joystick 75 Introduction 75 Part 1: Creating the Joystick Handle 77 Part 2: Creating the Joystick Base 84 Part3: Creating the Flexible Sleeve 94 Part 4: Creating the connecting cable 99 Part 5: Assigning objects to layers 104 Part 6: Directly modifying surfaces 108 Part 7: Creating the button 120 Part 8: Visualizing the Model 123 Conclusion 126 Quiz 127 On Your Own 128 Quiz Answers 129 Modeling a Vacuum Cleaner 131 Part 1: Creating Primary Surfaces 133 Part 2: Intersecting and Trimming 139 Part 3: Surface Fillet 145 Part 4: Creating the Handle 152 Part 5: Air Vents 157 Part 6: Power Button 163 Part 7: Dust Bag and Cable Connector 171 Part 8: Completing the Model 180 Conclusion 183 Quiz 184 On Your Own 185 Quiz Answers 187 Modeling an MP3 Player 189 Introduction 191 Part 1: Creating the Casing Curves 192 Part 2: Creating the Side Surfaces 197 Part 3: Completing the Casing 202 Part 4: Creating the Screen Recess 209 Part 5: Centre Navigation Key 217 Part 6: Control Button 221 Part 7: Completing the Model 231 Quiz 236 On Your Own 237 Quiz Answers 239 Modeling a Sports Shower Gel Bottle 241 New Concepts 242 Part 1: Creating Primary Surfaces 243 Part 2: Creating the Finger Grip Contents xi 251 Part 3: Label Surface 256 Part 4: Adding Blend Details 261 Part 5: Embossed Logo Details 267 Part 6: Completing the Model 275 Quiz 280 On Your Own 281 Quiz Answers 283 An introduction to Rendering 285 Visualizing a PDA 289 Conclusion 296 Quiz 297 On Your Own 298 Quiz Answers 299 Shaders and Lights 301 Part 1: Creating Shaders 302 Part 2: Adding a Label 309 Part 3: Lighting the Scene 313 Part 4: Creating an Image 319 Quiz 322 On Your Own 323 Quiz Answers 325 More rendering 327 Part 1: Editing the Render Globals parameters 329 Part 2: Creating a background environment 333 Part 3: Creating a 3D solid texture 338 Part 4: Creating a 2D bump texture 341 Part 5: Raytracing 345 Conclusion 349 Quiz 350 On your own 351 Quiz Answers 352 Introduction to animating 353 Part 1: keyframing animation 355 Part 2: animating along a motion path 364 Part 3: editing a motion path 367 Part 4: animating the camera 369 Conclusion 372 Quiz 373 On Your Own 374 Quiz Answers 375 More animation techniques 377 Part 1: Creating an exploded view animation 379 Part 2: animating shaders 386 Conclusion 395 Quiz 396 On your own 397 Quiz Answers 398 xii Contents Index 399 1 LEARNING ALIASSTUDIO TUTORIALS Learning objectives This chapter shows how to use the tutorials, and presents the graphic and text conventions used in this manual. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK Introduction A general introduction and welcome to the AliasStudio tutorials. Welcome to AliasStudio and the world of three dimensional modeling, rendering, and animating. AliasStudio offers a complete solution for the creation of digital content in fields such as industrial design, automotive design, and consumer product design. About the Learning AliasStudio Tutorials A general overview of the tutorials. The tutorials in this book present examples of typical concept design workflows. The tutorials introduce the powerful tools and interactive features of AliasStudio, and demonstrate how to use them to accomplish your concept design tasks. The first six tutorials introduce modeling tools to build your experience level. We recommend that you start with the first tutorial and proceed sequentially through the modeling tutorials, because they build on each other. The next two tutorials introduce rendering tools and skills. The last tutorial introduces animation tools and skills. These tutorials are densely packed with information and techniques that may be new to you. You may want to re-read the lessons after completion, or even repeat the more difficult lessons. You can view movies (in Flash format) demonstrating each tutorial in the online documentation. In order to view these movies, you may need to install a Flash player. You can download Flash plug-ins for your browser for free from www. macromedia. com. Disclaimer: There may be slight discrepancies in procedures between the movies and the written documentation. If you 2 How to use this book encounter a discrepancy, use the written ocumentation version because it will be the most current. For More Information Information on learning more about AliasStudio and training. These tutorials are an introduction to AliasStudio. They are not intended as an exhaustive guide to the capabilities and options of AliasStudio, and will not teach you everything th ere is to learn about the products and workflows. For additional information and more comprehensive explanations of tools and options, refer to the online documentation included with the product, and read Getting help on AliasStudio (page iii). Graphic Conventions Explains graphic conventions used in the tutorials. To call attention to part of a screen shot, we ighlight the important area and darken the rest of the image. For example, in the picture shown, we have marked the location of the close box on the Action Window. To indicate a click, we use this symbol. For example, in the picture shown, we have indicated that the Open command should be clicked. In the text of the instruction, we will refer to this as File > Open. The first word or term is the name of the menu or palette; it is followed by an arrow and the name of the menu item or tool. In the case of a submenu, two arrows are used: Layouts > All Windows > All Studio refers to the All Studio menu item available from the All Windows submenu, which is found on the Layouts menu. To indicate that an option box for a tool or menu item should be opened, a box appears after the tool name, like Surfaces > Skin ?. When we ask you to choose a tool, we show the tool’s icon next to the instruction. Terms Explains terms used in the tutorials. Click: Move the mouse pointer over an object and press and release a mouse button once. Double-click: Move the mouse pointer over an object and press and release a mouse button twice fast. Drag: Move the mouse pointer over an object and hold down a mouse button, then move the mouse with the button held down. Then release the mouse button. Click-Drag: Move the mouse pointer over an object, ress the mouse button, and move the mouse pointer to a final position before releasing the mouse button. The Scene: The 3D â€Å"world† inside the view windows. 3 How to use this book The Model: The curves, surfaces, and points that make up the object you are creating. Note about Window Names AliasStudio 2008 brings a change in Stu dio and DesignStudio to the names of the Front and Side orthographic windows. Some of the tutorials in this book (Modeling a Shower Gel Bottle, Modeling an MP3 Player, and Rendering Basics) use the new naming convention; the rest of the tutorials still use the older DesignStudio window names. At the start of each tutorial, a section describes which window ames are used in that tutorial, and how to set the window names. 4 How to use this book 5 INTERFACE BASICS Learning objectives You will learn how to: ? Log into the system and start AliasStudio. ? Arrange windows. ? Use tools and tool options. ? Customize shelves and marking menus. ? Tumble, track, and dolly the view. ? Use the Object Lister window to understand the model Introduction Before you begin working in AliasStudio, you should spend some time learning how AliasStudio represents the scene and the model (both externally and internally), and how you use menus and tools to create and edit model data. Installing the tutorial co urseware files Each tutorial in this book is based on an Alias wire file which contains the material you need to learn the tools, skills and concepts in the tutorial. When you install AliasStudio, the courseware files are not automatically installed. These files are required to complete the Learning AliasStudio and Technical Surfacing tutorials. If you have installed the online documentation, your courseware may already be installed. If not, follow the following procedure to install the courseware. To install the courseware for use with AliasStudio: The courseware files (Alias wire files and other support files) are automatically installed when you install the documentation from the AliasStudio Documentation CD. If you have not yet installed the documentation, place the AliasStudio Documentation CD in your CD-ROM drive and proceed with the installation. You will require write permissions to the directory in which you plan to install the online help and courseware files. If you want to install only the courseware files, go directly to your disk drive and find the CourseWare folder on the disk. 2 Copy the CourseWare folder from its location on your hard drive or CD-ROM drive into your user_data folder. On Windows systems this is typically: C:Documents and Settings[userid]My DocumentsAliasStudiouser_dataCourseWare 6 Interface Basics To install the courseware for use with AliasStudio Personal Learning Edition 1 The AliasStudio documentation should have lready been installed on your system. The courseware files you’ll require to perform the tutorials can be found in the CourseWare directory, located under the Help directory. If you have installed the application in the default directory, you should find the CourseWare directory at C:Program FilesAutodeskAliasStudioPLE2008Help. 2 Copy the CourseWare directory from the Help directory to your account’s user data directory. On Windows systems this is typically: C:Documents and Settings[userid]My DocumentsAliasStudiouser_ dataCourseW are Starting AliasStudio Logging In If you have not logged in to your account on your workstation, do so now. To log in to your account ? Type your user name and password at the prompts. If you have an account on this workstation, the operating system user environment will appear. Depending on which product you are using, the AliasStudio icon may have a different name, such as DesignStudio or AutoStudio. To start AliasStudio on Windows 1 Double-click the Studio shortcut icon on the desktop, or choose Studio from the Start menu. When you start AliasStudio for the first time the Application Launcher appears on your desktop. 2 Choose a product to launch and options where applicable. If you want AliasStudio to launch the selected product and options automatically every ime you start AliasStudio, click Set Default. When you start AliasStudio again, the default product starts and the Application Launcher does not appear. You can change the default settings anytime by choosing Application Launcher from the Start menu. 3 Click Launch. The chosen product should start. 4 If the main AliasStudio window appears, AliasStudio is installed. The Start-up Process The first time you run AliasStudio, you may be presented with a choice of product to launch, if you work in an environment where there are several AliasStudio products installed. The product choice will depend on the licenses owned by your organization. 1 Choose the product you want to run, and click Go. Next, you’ll be presented with a workflow selection. 2 For the purpose of these tutorials, choose the Default workflow, which gives you access to all 3D curve and surface creation tools. The Paint workflow is for working solely within a 2D environment. You can click the Do not show again check box so this window won’t appear every time you launch AliasStudio. If you have chosen a workflow setting and checked Do not show again, you can change the default workflow by choosing the workflow you want from Preferences > Workflows. AliasStudio will launch the application in the same workflow that was active when you last exited the application. AliasStudio shows a splash window as it loads. During start-up, AliasStudio may warn you about unusual conditions on your system: ? If you are already running AliasStudio (or if AliasStudio exited abnormally the last time you ran it), the application will ask you if you really want to start another copy. 3 If you are sure AliasStudio is not running, click Yes to continue loading. After AliasStudio has finished loading its resources and plug-ins, the workspace window opens. 7 Interface Basics Overview of the AliasStudio Interface The main parts of the AliasStudio interface are: ? the Palette, located on the left ? the Menu Bar, located at the top the Window Area, taking up most of the interface and located in the middle (this area may or may not contain view windows when you first start AliasStudio). ? Shelves, located at the bottom (the Shelves may or may not be visible) ? the Control Panel, located on the right As you continue through this tutorial you will become more and more fami liar with the AliasStudio interface. Using Help One of the most important menus is the Help menu. The Help menu is organized so that you can get quick and specific information on just about any tool in AliasStudio. To get help on a tool or menu item It’s easy to get help on any tool or menu item in the interface. Just follow the steps below. 1 Click the Help menu, located at the right end of the menu bar. 2 In the Help menu, click What’s This? You are prompted to select the tool for which you want help. (This prompt appears in the prompt line, located just below the menu bar. ) 3 Click a menu item or a tool icon in the Palette. A browser window is launched and the on-line documentation about that tool icon or menu item is displayed. 4 When you are finished reading the information, minimize or close the browser window. Menu Bar Shelves Control Panel Window Area Palette 8 Interface Basics Arranging Windows Performing Menu Commands To use the menus to choose a window layout Click the title of the Layouts menu to open the menu. Notice the arrow next to the All windows item. This means there are more sub-options for this category: 2 Click the All windows item to open the submenu, then click the All windows item. The All windows command arranges view windows in the â€Å"Studio† layou t: Top, Front, Right, and Perspective. These tutorials will sometimes refer to menu items by the path through the menus to the item. So All windows will be: Layouts > All windows > All windows. As an alternative to the single-click method, you can use the pull-down menus by dragging the mouse down the menu and releasing on the item you want. Window Controls Use these controls on the borders of view windows to move, close, and resize the window: The view windows have more controls across the top, but for now you will concentrate on the close box, title bar, maximize, and resize corners. You will discover the functions of the other icons later in the tutorials. Close box Title bar Maximize box resize corners (4) 9 Interface Basics Closing Windows To close the Top view using the close box ? Find the close box in the upper left corner of the Top view window. ? Click the Top view window’s close box. The Top view window disappears. Resizing Windows You can change the size of windows using the resize arrows at each corner. To change the size of a view window using the resize arrows and maximize box 1 Find the resize arrows in the corners of a view window. 2 Drag a resize arrow to change the size of the window. An outline of the view window follows the mouse. 3 Release the mouse button. The corner of the window snaps to the new size. 4 Try dragging the resize corners in the other corners to see how they resize the window. ? Often you will want to work in one large window to see more detail. Use the maximize box to temporarily make the view window fill the entire screen. 5 Find the maximize box in the upper right corner of a view window. 6 Click the maximize box of the view window . The view expands to fill the entire screen. Notice that the maximize box changes to black to show the window is maximized. 7 Click the maximize box again to return the view window to normal size. Moving Windows To move and arrange the remaining windows 1 Find a view window’s title bar. The title bar is the area at the top of the window, between the close box and the other icons on the right. 10 Interface Basics 2 Drag the title bar. An outline of the view window follows the mouse. 3 Release the mouse button. The window snaps to the new location. ? By now you probably have some view windows overlapping other windows, similar to this: The windows are like a stack of papers on a desk. As you shuffle them, they can overlap. When windows overlap like this, you can click in a window to move that window to the front of the stack. 4 Click the title bar of the Perspective view window to move it in front of the other windows. The windows are probably a little disorganized at this point. You can quickly reset them to a default layout using the commands in the Layout menu again. 5 Choose Layouts > All windows > All windows. The Active Window Notice one of the view windows has a white border. This is how AliasStudio indicates the active view window (sometimes also called the current view window). The active view window is always the last view indow you clicked in. Some tools change behavior based on which view is active, but for now you can disregard which view window is active. Saving an arrangement of windows If you have a particular choice of windows that you plan to use repeatedly, you can save the set by choosing Layouts > User windows > Save Current Layout. Youâ€℠¢ll be prompted for a file name. To use this layout in the future, choose Layouts > User windows > Retrieve Layout. 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 11 Interface Basics Using Tools Using Tools Describes how to use the AliasStudio interface, such as selecting tools and creating shortcuts. Tool Basics To orient yourself in the Palette window Find the Palette window on the left side of the screen. If the palette is not visible, go to the Windows menu and choose Palette. The Palette window is divided into separate palettes of tools, each labeled with a tab at the top. For example, the Curves palette contains tools for creating new curves. The Curve Edit palette contains tools for editing and reshaping existing curves. 2 Find the Surfaces palette. It’s the seventh palette from the top of the window. If you can’t see the Surfaces palette, use the scroll bar on the left side of the palette window to scroll up or down until it’s visible in the window. 3 Hold the cursor over a tool. Th e name of the tool appears in a small box just elow the icon. This small text window is called a tooltip. This feature can help you to identify tools until you become familiar with the icons in the palette. Once you are familiar with the icons in the palette, you may want to disable tooltips. To do this, choose the ToolTips option in the Interface section of the General Preferences window (Preferences > General Preferences – ? ). Now you will use the geometric primitive tools to add some geometry to the scene. The primitive tools create simple 3D geometric shapes such as cubes, spheres, and cones. As a technical surfacer, you may not regularly need to add these simple shapes to a model. However, hey will allow us to practice several AliasStudio interface concepts, including choosing tools, using manipulators, sub-palettes, tool option windows, and snapping. 12 Interface Basics Using Tools To create a primitive sphere in the scene 1 Click the Surfaces > Primitives > Sphere too l. A red outline appears around the icon to show it is the current tool. 2 Click in the Top view window to place the new sphere. A new sphere, one grid unit wide, appears where you release the mouse button. Using a Snap Mode To use grid snapping to place a primitive cube You may have noticed that some tools have a small yellow arrow in the top right corner. These arrows indicate that more, similar tools re available in a hidden sub-palette. To access the extra tools, you must click and hold the mouse to open the sub-palette. 1 In the Surfaces palette, click and hold the Sphere tool icon. The Surfaces > Primitives sub-palette pops out. 2 Hold the middle mouse button on the different tools in the sub-palette to see their names. 3 Click the Cube tool. The sub-palette disappears. The Cube tool is selected and now occupies the space in the main palette where the Sphere tool was. This time you will place the new primitive using grid snapping. 4 Find the snap buttons, to the right of the p romptline. 5 Click the Grid button to turn on grid snapping. Click and drag in the Top view window. 13 Interface Basics Using Tools The cube snaps to the grid intersections as you drag. 7 Place the cube at a grid point by releasing the mouse button. 8 Click the Grid snap button again to turn grid snapping off. In addition to using the Grid button, you can grid snap by pressing and holding the Alt button while you place a primitive. To use the palette menu to choose the Cone tool This time we will show you an alternative method for choosing tools from palettes. 1 Click the tab at the top of the Surfaces palette. The palette collapses down to just the tab, and the other palettes move up to fill the space. This feature is very useful for saving space in the palette window and in shelves. You can still choose tools from the palette using the palette’s menu. 2 Click the right mouse button on the Surfaces palette’s title tab to open the palette’s menu. 3 Click the Primitives item to open the sub-menu. Just like the menus at the top of the screen, arrows indicate that an item in the palette menu has sub-items. 4 Click the Cone tool item. You have now seen two different ways to choose a tool from a palette. From now on, we will ask you to choose tools by name, such as: â€Å"In the Surfaces palette, choose Primitives > Cone. † Whenever you are asked to choose a tool, you an either click the tool icon, or choose the tool from the palette menu. 5 Click in the Top view to place a cone in the scene. 6 Click the Surfaces palette’s tab again to expand the Surfaces palette back to normal. To use tool options to add a half-cylinder 1 With the right mouse button, c lick the title tab of the Surfaces palette to open the palette menu, then open the Primitives sub-menu. Notice that some items have shadowed boxes next to the name of the item. 14 Interface Basics Using Tools 2 Click the shadowed box next to the Cylinder item. 3 The Cylinder options window appears. 4 Double click in the text box labeled Sweep, then type 180 and press Enter to set the sweep to 180 degrees. Use the slider next to the Sections text box to set the sections to 4. 6 Click the Go button at the bottom of the window. This button applies the settings in the window and activates the tool. 7 Click in the Top view window to place the new half-cylinder in the scene. As you specified in the option window, the cylinder has a 180-degree perimeter and is created from four sections (spans). 8 Look at the Cylinder tool icon. It has a small option box symbol in the top left corner. Like the symbol in the menu, this indicates the tool has options. 9 Double-click the Cylinder tool icon. T he Cylinder Options window appears. 10 Click Exit to close the options window. Picking and Unpicking Objects Picking refers to selecting objects in the scene for use with other tools. For example, to move a CV, you must pick the CV, then use the Move tool on the picked CV. Picking objects in the scene is a fundamental part of modeling with AliasStudio. Because it is so important, AliasStudio provides several different tools for picking. To pick all and pick nothing 1 In the Pick palette, choose Object Types > All obj/lights. All the objects in the scene highlight to show they are picked. 15 Interface Basics Using Tools Unlike most selection tools, Pick > Object Types > All obj/lights does not stay selected, since you never need to use it twice in a row. When these momentary types of tools finish, the current tool reverts to the last continuous tool you selected. 2 In the Pick palette, choose the Nothing tool. The Pick > Nothing tool unpicks every object, leaving nothing picked. Like the Pick > Object Types > All obj/lights tool, the Pick > Nothing tool does not stay selected. The current tool reverts to the last tool you used. To pick and unpick individual objects 1 Choose the Pick > Object tool. 2 Click the cone primitive in the view windows with the left mouse button. The cone highlights to show it is picked. 3 Click the other objects with the left mouse button. They also become picked. With all the objects picked, click one of the picked objects with the left mouse button. The object you clicked becomes unpicked. The left mouse button toggles objects between picked and unpicked. 5 Now click one of the primitives with the middle mouse button. The object you clicked is picked and the other objects are unpicked. 16 Interface Basics Using Tools The middle mouse button picks only the object you click. 6 Click the picked primitive with the right mouse button. The object is unpicked. The right mouse button unpicks objects. This is most useful with pick boxes, as you will see in the next procedure. To use pick boxes to pick and unpick several objects at once With the Pick > Object tool still selected, click one of the primitive objects with the left mouse button. 2 Press the left mouse button and drag a box around all the primitive objects. All the objects inside the pick box toggle between picked and unpicked. 3 Now drag a pick box with the middle mouse button around some objects. Now only the objects inside the box are picked. 4 Now drag a pick box with the right mouse button around some of the picked objects. 17 Interface Basics Using Tools Any objects inside the pick box are unpicked. To pick by name 1 Use the middle mouse button to pick only the sphere. 2 From the Windows menu, choose Information > Information window. The Information window appears. The information window allows you to adjust parameters for objects in the scene. 3 Find the Name field. The name of the object should be sphere or something similar. 4 Close the Information window. 5 Click in empty space with the middle mouse button. All objects in the scene are unpicked. ? Remember, the middle mouse button picks only what you click. If you pick â€Å"nothing† (empty space), then the tool acts just like if you had chosen Pick > Nothing. 6 Type sphere, then press Enter. The text appears as you type in the promptline at the top of the workspace window. When you press Enter, the sphere is picked. Shortcuts to Tools The variety of tools available is the source of AliasStudio’s power, but finding tools in the palette can potentially become time consuming. You can make commonly used tools available more quickly, and hide rarely used tools until you need them. AliasStudio provides three solutions: shelves, marking menus, and hot keys. Shelves are like the palettes, except you control the tools’ options and their position on the shelves. You will use shelves to organize all your commonly used tools. Marking menus pop-up at the current mouse location. They provide a very fast method to choose the tools you use most often (such as Pick > Object). Hot keys are special key combinations that perform ommon menu or tool commands. Creating Custom Shelves To show and hide the shelf window 1 In the Windows menu, choose Shelves. The Shelves window appears. ? The Shelves window provides a floating window in which to keep commonly used tools. 18 Interface Basics Using Tools AliasStudio, however, pr ovides another, even more convenient location for shelves. In these tutorials, you will use the shelf area in the control panel. ? Since you will not be using the Shelves window, you can close it. 2 Choose Windows > Shelves again to hide the Shelves window, or click the Shelves window’s close button. To help demonstrate how to make new shelves, you ill clear the default shelves and make new shelves specific to these tutorials. Before you clear the default shelves, you will save them so you can retrieve them later. To save the initial shelf set 1 Choose Windows > Control Panel. The control panel will appear. 2 Hold the left mouse button on the Shelf Options menu button at the top of the control panel’s shelf area to open the pop-up menu. 3 Drag down to the Save item and release the mouse button. A file requester appears. 4 Click in the File text field and type Default, then click Save. In the next procedure, you will start a new shelf of tools commonly used in curve fit ting in preparation or the lesson on fitting curves to scan data. To clear the existing shelf set and create a new one 1 Hold the left mouse button on the menu button at the top of the shelf area to open the pop-up menu. Notice how the menu button is now called Default, after the name of the current shelf. 2 Choose New from the pop-up menu. A requester appears asking for the name of the new shelf. 3 Click in the text box, hit the Esc key to clear the text, and type CurveFit. Click OK to name the new shelf. The old Shelf set is deleted and a new, empty shelf appears in the shelf area. Now you can begin adding tools to the new shelf. 4 In the Palette window, find the Curves palette. With the middle mouse button, drag the Fit Curve tool onto the Curves shelf in the control panel. 19 Interface Basics Using Tools The tool appears in the shelf. You could move the entire Curves palette onto the shelf by dragging its title tab, but you only want a selection of tools from the full palette. N ext, you will add curve drawing tools to the palette. Since you will often need to create curves of different degree in technical surfacing, it would be useful to have customized versions of tools with different settings. The shelf allows you to do this. When you drag a tool onto a shelf, the new copy of the tool keeps the settings it had when it was dropped on the shelf, ndependent of the original tool in the palette. Using this technique, you will create several versions of the two original curve creation tools, New curve (edit pts) and New curve (cvs). Each version will have different settings for the Degree option. To add versions of the New Curve tools to the shelf with different options 1 In the Curves palette, double-click New Curves > New Curve by Edit Points to open the tool’s option window. (Remember that you can also choose New Curve by Edit Points from the palette menu). The New Curve by Edit Points option window appears. The options let you set the knot spacing ( parameterization) and degree of the new curve. Make sure Knot Spacing is set to Uniform and Create Guidelines is off. 3 Set the Degree option to 2. 4 Find the tool icon at the top of the option window. This icon represents the tool as configured with these settings. 5 Press the middle mouse button on the tool icon at the top of the option box and drag it to the CurveFit shelf. Now when you choose this icon in the shelf, the New Curve (edit pts) tool will create degree 2 curves. 6 Back in the option window, set the Degree to 3. 20 Interface Basics Using Tools 7 Use the middle mouse button to drag the tool icon at the top of the option window to the shelf. Another copy of the tool is added to the shelf. When you choose this copy of the tool, the New Curve (edit pts) tool will create degree 3 curves. 8 Click Exit at the bottom of the option window to close the window. To rename the tools 1 Move the mouse over the CurveFit shelf’s title tab and press the right mouse button to show the shelf’s menu. Note that the two versions of the tool have the exact same name and icon. To be able to distinguish between the tools, you will rename them. 2 Find the first version of New Curve by Edit Points you dragged to the shelf. If you can’t remember which is which, doubleclick the two icons to see their option windows. You want the version with the Degree option set to 2. Hold down the Ctrl key and double-click the tool icon. A name requester appears. 4 Double-click in the text box and type Edit_pt_Deg_2, then click OK to rename the tool. 5 Hold down the Ctrl key and double-click the second copy of the New Curve by Edit Points tool. 6 Double-click in the text box and type Edit_ pt_Deg_3, then click OK to rename the tool. 7 Hold down the right mouse button on the title tab of the shelf to open the shelf menu. The two copies of the tool are now distinguishable in the menu, but still have identical icons. We recommend you keep the shelves collapsed and use the shelf menus to choose tools. This saves space in the shelf. To remove a tool from the shelf 1 Add another tool to the CurveFit shelf. Let’s now assume that this was a mistake and you wish to remove the tool. 2 Hold the middle mouse button over the tool’s icon in the shelf. The name of the tool appears. 3 With the middle mouse button held down, drag the label to the upper-right corner of the window and position the cursor over the trash can icon. 21 Interface Basics Using Tools 4 Release the mouse button. The tool disappears from the shelf. You can also delete groups of tools by dragging a tab with the middle mouse button to the trash can. You may have noticed that icons are a bit crowded on the shelf. The large icons are good when you are learning which icon is which, but now you will switch to the small icon size to save space in the shelf. To change to the small icon size 1 In the Preferences menu, choose General Preferences – ?. The Interface options appear. 2 Set the Icon Mode to Small. If you wish, you can also turn the icon labels option on to display name labels on all the icons. 3 Click the Go button at the bottom of the window to apply the changes. AliasStudio loads smaller versions of all the tool icons. You have seen how to create shelves with customized tools. In later lessons you will load premade shelves containing all the tools you need to omplete the tutorials. Using and Customizing Marking Menus An even faster method for selecting tools are the marking menus. Marking menus generally hold fewer tools than a shelf, but are much faster since you can use quick gestures to choose tools. With practice, selecting tools with marking menus becomes almost instantaneo us. To choose common tools with marking menus 1 Hold down the Shift and Ctrl keys. 2 With the keys held down, hold the left mouse button. 22 Interface Basics Using Tools The left mouse button marking menu appears at the location of the mouse pointer. 3 Keep the left mouse button held down and drag down until the Pick > Object box is ighlighted. A thick black line shows the direction of the mouse pointer. 4 Release the mouse button to choose the highlighted tool. The Pick > Object tool is now the current tool. 5 Hold Shift and Ctrl with the middle and then with the right mouse buttons to see the other marking menus. Each mouse button has a separate marking menu. Once you have learned which direction corresponds to which tool in a marking menu, you can use a quick gesture to choose the tool. 6 Hold the Shift and Ctrl keys, then drag up and release the mouse button quickly. The black line shows the direction but the menu is not drawn. When you release the mouse button, the arking menu flashes the name of the selected tool on the screen. You have just selected Pick > Nothing. Use this method to choose tools even faster once you have mastered the positions of the tools on the menu. Learn which tools are on the marking menus, and use the marking menus whenever you need to choose one of those tools. The more you use them, the faster you will become, until you can choose tools with quick gestures. To customize a marking menu with common tools 1 In the Preferences menu, open the Marking Menus sub-menu and choose Modeling Marking Menu – ?. The Modeling Marking Menu shelf window appears. This is a special shelf window. The tools and enu items on the different tabs appear in corresponding marking menus. The procedure to modify the content of marking menus is similar to the one for modifying shelves that we learned earlier. Here you will make a small modification to the Pick marking menu shelf. 2 Double click the Pick > Pick locator point tool in the Palette or Cont rol Panel to open the Pick Locator Options box. Right mouse button Middle mouse button Middle Right 23 Interface Basics Using Tools 3 Hold down the middle mouse button and drag the tool icon from the top of the option box and drop it between the third and fourth last icons on the shelf. You now have a tool on the marking menu to ick locators. 4 Hold down Shift and Alt keys and press the left mouse button to show the marking menu again. The tool you just added is called Pick > Pick_locator in the marking menu. You will change the name to something more concise. 5 In the MarkingMenu shelf window, hold down the Ctrl key and double-click the Pick locator tool in the shelf (second from the right). A dialog box appears. 6 Type Pick_Locator in the text field and click OK to rename the tool in the marking menu. 7 Show the left mouse button marking menu again. You now know how to customize the marking menus. In later lessons, you will load pre-made marking menus with common urfacing tools. U sing hot keys Hot keys are special key combinations that choose tools or perform menu commands. You can get a complete listing of all the hot keys in the hot key editor. To use hot keys 1 In the Preferences menu, open the Interface sub-menu and choose Hot keys / Menus. The hot key editor appears. 24 Interface Basics Using Tools ? AliasStudio’s option windows use a hierarchy similar to that of the file lister: options are organized into hierarchical sections that can be collapsed and expanded. 2 In the menu section, click the Layouts subsection title to expand it. Click to open a Section Heading You can see the hot key for the User windows tem, as well as text fields for defining other hot keys. You can define your own hot keys if you wish. For the most part we will not use hot keys in these lessons. If you are new to Autodesk AliasStudio products, we recommend that you spend some time working with the product before you define hot keys, so you can learn which commands you use frequently enough to need a hot key. 3 Click the close box to close the hot key editor. 25 Interface Basics Changing Your View of the Model Changing Your View of the Model Learn how AliasStudio represents the 3D model on your 2D monitor, and how to use the view controls to get the best possible angle on the model for the ask at hand. Tracking, Dollying, and Tumbling the Camera’s View There are many different ways to change the camera’s view in AliasStudio. In general, you will only need to learn three camera moves to model effectively: tumble, dolly, and track. Because these camera movements are so common, AliasStudio uses special hot key/mouse combinations to let you access these movements quickly. To use the camera move mode to move the camera in a perspective window 1 Hold down the Shift and Alt keys. Keep the keys held down during the following steps. 2 Make sure the mouse pointer is over the perspective view window. 3 Drag the left mouse button to tumble the came ra: Drag left and right to rotate the camera. ? Drag up and down to tilt the camera. Tumbling the camera changes the azimuth and elevation angles of the camera. 4 Release the left mouse button, but keep the Shift and Alt keys held down. 5 Drag the right mouse button to dolly the camera in and out. Dolly in out Track Tumble rotate tilt up down left right 26 Interface Basics Changing Your View of the Model Dollying moves the camera forward and backward. 6 Again, release the right mouse button, but keep the Shift and Alt keys held down. 7 Drag the middle mouse button to track the camera. Tracking moves the camera, but does not change the direction in which the camera is pointing. When you are done moving the camera, release the mouse button and the Shift and Alt keys to exit camera move mode. Now, try moving the camera in the orthographic windows. To use the camera move keys to move the camera in an orthographic window 1 Hold Shift and Alt to enter camera move mode. 2 Make sure the poi nter is over an orthographic window such as Top, Side, or Back 3 Drag the right mouse button to dolly in and out. 4 Drag the middle mouse button to track up, down, left and right. 5 Now try dragging the left mouse button to tumble the orthographic view. Nothing happens. You cannot change the view direction of orthographic windows. They always ook in the same direction. Moving the camera is a very important skill in AliasStudio. Throughout this book you will need to move the camera to work with geometry. Using the camera move mode soon becomes second nature. With practice, you will be able to 27 Interface Basics Changing Your View of the Model move the camera where you need it without thinking about the keys or the mouse. Practice tumbling, tracking, and dollying the camera around the model some more before you move on. To use Look At to center on an object 1 Use the marking menus to choose the Pick > Nothing tool. Remember that the left mouse button marking menu has the pick tools. Now use the marking menus to choose the Pick > Object tool. 3 Pick one of the geometric objects you created earlier. 4 Find the View palette. It’s near the bottom of the Palette window. 5 Choose the Look at tool. The active view window (the window with the white outline) changes to center on the picked object. 6 Pick nothing. 7 Use the Look at tool again. The active view changes to center on all the existing geometry. When you use Look at with nothing or everything picked, the view will center on all the geometry in the scene. Look at is most useful to quickly find geometry that is outside the view of a window or too far to be seen clearly. AliasStudio provides two additional tools to make it easier to move the camera around a model quickly: the â€Å"point of interest†, and the viewing panel. Changing the Point of Interest Normally, camera move mode (Shift+Alt) is calibrated to best view objects at the origin (the center of world space, coordinate 0,0,0). This can become awkward when you want to move the camera around objects away from the origin. The point of interest manipulator lets you center the camera movements on a point on the model. To use the point of interest manipulator First, make sure the point of interest manipulator is turned on. 1 Choose Preferences > General Preferences ?. The General Preferences window appears. 28 Interface Basics Changing Your View of the Model T 2 Click Input on the left hand side to open the Input section. 3 Turn on the Use point of interest option. 4 Click Go to close the window and use the new settings. 5 Move the mouse pointer over the Perspective view and hold down the Shift and Alt keys to open the Viewing Panel. Keep the keys held down for the rest of this procedure. 6 In the Viewing Panel, open the Pnt of Interest section and turn on Visible. 7 Position the mouse pointer on the wireframe of one of the primitive objects and click with the left mouse button. When you release the mouse button, the point f interest manipulator appears on the model where you clicked. Drag with the left mouse button to tumble. The view tumbles around the point of interest. 8 Click and release on another point on one of the primitive objects. The point of interest manipulator jumps to the new point. 9 Drag the circle at the center of the point of i nterest manipulator. The manipulator moves across the surface of the object. 10 Notice the light blue or yellow arrow extending from the center of the manipulator. This arrow indicates the normal at this point on the surface. The arrow is light blue when it is pointing toward you and yellow when it is pointing away. 11 Click the light blue or yellow arrow. The view changes to look at the point down the normal. 12 Now look for the red and green arrows extending from the center of the manipulator (tumble the view to show the arrows more clearly if necessary). These arrows represent the tangents along the U and V directions for the object. 13 Click the red arrow. The view changes to look down the tangent in the U direction. 29 Interface Basics Changing Your View of the Model Use the following overview illustration as a reminder of the different controls on the point of interest manipulator. Using the Viewing Panel You have probably already seen the viewing panel appear when you enter camera move mode in the Perspective window. This window lets you quickly switch the Perspective window to a default or userdefined view of the model. As you work on the model, you will probably find yourself changing the camera view back and forth between two or more areas of interest. The viewing panel lets you â€Å"bookmark† views of the model and return to those views by clicking the name of the bookmark. To use the viewing panel to move between different views 1 Click the maximize box in the upper right corner of the Perspective view window. The Perspective view window enlarges to full screen. 2 Hold down the Shift and Alt keys to enter camera move mode. Keep the keys held down for the rest of this procedure. The viewing panel appears in the upper left corner of the Perspective window. The images at the center of the panel (small icons of the top and bottom of a car) represent the model. 3 Click an arrow to view the model from one of eight different directions. The horizontal and vertical arrows represent front, side, and back views. The diagonal arrows represent three-quarter views. Click the red or green arrow to look at the tangent along the U or V direction Click the light blue/yellow arrow to look down the norma Drag the circle to move at this point the point of interest along or across the object 30 Interface Basics Changing Your View of the Model Click the left car icon to see a top view, or the right car icon to see a bottom view. 5 Click the white arrow near the bottom of the viewing panel to return to the view previous to your last camera move. 6 Click the Viewing Panel section heading at the top of the panel to collapse the entire panel into a small heading. Use this technique to get the viewing panel out of the way when you want as much viewing area as possible. 7 Click the Viewing Panel heading again to expand the panel. 8 Click the Point of Interest section heading to open it. Options related to the point of interest manipulator appear. 9 Turn off the Visible check box to hide the point of interest manipulator. Turn the Visible check box on to show the manipulator again. 10 Turn on the Locked check box to keep the point of interest manipulator locked at its current position. The manipulator will not move when you click at another point or drag its center handle. Use this option if you find that you are moving the manipulator unintentionally. Turn the Locked check box off to free the manipulator. 11 Turn off the Perspective check box. The perspective view changes to an isographic projection. 31 Interface Basics Changing Your View of the Model Many people find an isographic view easier for technical modeling, since parallel lines in the model remain parallel in the view window. For the remainder of the tutorials, the screen shots will show isographic views. However, feel free to turn the Perspective checkbox back on if you prefer a perspective view. To set and show bookmarks 1 Move the mouse pointer over the Perspective view and hold down the Shift and Alt keys to enter camera move mode. Keep the Shift and Alt keys held down. 2 Find the Bookmarks section at the bottom of the Viewing Panel If it is not visible, click on the tag in the bottom right corner of the viewing panel. It will turn white and the bookmarks section will appear. 3 Click the new button in the bookmarks section. A new bookmark appears at the bottom of the section. Move the camera to a new view on the model. 5 Click the new button again. A second bookmark appears in the bookmark list. 6 Click the label for the first bookmark, then the second. The view switches back and forth between the two bookmarked views. To be able to distinguish between bookmarks later, you should rename them now. 7 Cl ick the edit button in the Bookmarks section. The Bookmark Lister window appears. 8 Release the Shift and Alt keys. 9 Hold down the Ctrl key and double-click the first bookmark icon in the Bookmark Lister. A dialog box appears. 10 Type a new name for the bookmark, then click OK. For production work you should use meaningful ames such as â€Å"back panel† or â€Å"door handle†. By default, bookmarks are named BM, BM#2, BM#3, etc. Move the cursor over a bookmark icon to see its current name. 11 Ctrl double-click and rename the other bookmark. 12 Note the buttons in the Bookmark Lister window: ? The Delete button removes the current bookmark (green outline) from the list. ? The New button adds a bookmark of the current view. This is the same as clicking new in the viewing panel. ? The Prev and Next buttons change the view to the bookmark that precedes or follows the highlighted bookmark (green outline). Delete New Prev Next Bookmark icons Cycle Publish 32 Interface Basics Changing Your View of the Model The Cycle button displays the bookmarked views in a slideshow fashion. ? The Publish button saves the current or all bookmark(s) as image files on your disk. ? Clicking on a bookmark icon changes the view to that bookmark. This is the same as clicking a bookmark in the viewing panel. 13 Close the Bookmark Lister. 14 Hold the Shift and Alt keys in the Perspective window to show the viewing panel. Notice your new names in the Bookmarks section. Use the following overview illustration as a reminder of the different controls on the viewing panel. The Twist and Azimuth/Elevation tools rotate the view around the point of interest. Open/Close Panel Open/Close

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.